Adults
Below is a list of measures designed for assessing well-being of adults. Please click on each measure for further information.
+-The Cantril Scale (ladder)
Respondents are asked to imagine a ladder and indicate where in the “ladder of life” they stand. With the top of the ladder (10) representing the best life possible for oneself and the bottom of the ladder (0) representing the worst life possible. There are two possible versions used by Gallup, one measuring the present moment (how a person feels about their life right now), and one measuring the future (in individuals evaluation of where he or she will stand in five years).
Keywords: Hedonic
This is a single-item scale.
Cantril, H. (1965). The pattern of human concerns. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
+-Delighted-terrible Life
To the question "How do you feel about your life as a whole?" respondents answer on a scale from 1 (terrible) to 7 (delighted).
Keywords: Hedonic
This is a single-item scale.
Andrews, F. M. & Whitney, S. B. (1976). Social indicators of well-being: Americans perceptions of life quality. New York: Plenum Press.
+-Happy Person
A single item measure of happiness. Responders answer the question: "generally speaking are you a happy person?" On a scale from 1 (very unhappy) to 7 (very happy).
Keywords: Hedonic
This is a single-item scale.
Veennhoven, R. (1974). Is there an innate need for children? European Journal of Social Psychology, 14, 495-501.
+-Satisfaction with Life one Leads
A single item measure of life satisfaction. To the question: "On the whole how satisfied are you with the life you lead?" respondents answer on a scale from 1 (not at all satisfied) to 4 (very satisfied).
Keywords: Hedonic
This is a single-item scale.
Used in the Eurobarometer.
+-ESS core - happy
A single item measure of happiness used in the European Social Survey (ESS). To the question: "Taking all things together, how happy would you say you are?" Respondents answer on a scale from 0 (extremely unhappy) to 10 (extremely happy) and 88 (don't know).
Keywords: Hedonic
This is a single-item scale.
European Social Survey, (2014). ESS Round 7 Source Questionnaire. London: ESS ERIC Headquarters, Centre for Comparative Social Surveys, City University London.
+-Single item self-esteem scale (SISE)
A single item measure of self-esteem. To the statement "I have high self-esteem." Respondents answer on a scale from 1 (not very true of me) to 5 OR 7 (very true of me).
Keywords: Eudaimonic
This is a single-item scale.
Robins, R. W., Hendin, H. M., & Trzesniewski, K. H. (2001). Measuring Global Self-Esteem: Construct Validation of a Single-Item Measure and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 151-161.
+-1-item job satisfaction (derived from the 16- item Job Satisfaction Scale (JSS))
‘‘Taking everything into consideration, how do you feel about your job as a whole?’’ rated on a seven-point Likert scale (1 extremely dissatisfied, 7 extremely satisfied)
Keywords: Hedonic
This is a single-item scale.
Dolbier, C. L., Webster, J. A., McCalister, K. T., Mallon, M. W., & Steinhardt, M. A. (2005). Reliability and validity of a single-item measure of job satisfaction. American Journal of Health Promotion, 19(3), 194-198.
+-ESS core - relationships
Three items taken from the European Social Survey (ESS) that can serve as indicators of peoples relationships with others. The questions are as following: To the question "How often do you meet socially with friends, relatives or work colleagues ?" respndents answer from 1 (never), 2 (less than once a month), 3 (once a month), 4 (several times a month), 5 (once a week), 6 (several times a week), 7 (every day) or 88(don't know). To the question "How many people, if any, are there with whom you can discuss intimate and personal matters?" Respondents answer on a scale from 0 (none), 1(1), 2(2), 3(3), 4(4-6), 5(7-9), 6(7-9) or 88(don't know). To the question "How many people, if any, are there with whom you can discuss intimate and personal matters?" Respondents answer on a scale from 0 (none), 1(1), 2(2), 3(3), 4(4-6), 5(7-9), 6(7-9) or 88(don't know).
Keywords: Eudaimonic
European Social Survey, (2014). ESS Round 7 Source Questionnaire. London: ESS ERIC Headquarters, Centre for Comparative Social Surveys, City University London.
+-ONS - well-being
Four items that do not make a full scale but can be used as general indicators of well-being. They are used by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) as indicators for well-being of the British population. The items are: “Overall, how satisfied are you with your life nowadays?”; “Overall, to what extent do you feel the things you do in your life are worthwhile?”; “Overall, how happy did you feel yesterday?”; and “Overall, how anxious did you feel yesterday?” All items are answered on a scale from 0 to 10 where 0 is ‘not at all’ and 10 is ‘completely’.
Keywords: Hedonic
ONS; added to the Annual Population Survey (APS), in April 2011.
+-Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS)
WEMWEBS is a well-being scale focusing on positive mental health. The scale captures both hedonic and eudaimoinc parts of well-being as well as cognitive-evaluative dimensions.
Keywords: Hedonic/Eudaimonic
This scale includes 14 items.
Example items: "I’ve been feeling useful", "I’ve been feeling interested in other people", "I’ve been able to make up my own mind about things".
Tennant, R., Hiller, L., Fishwick, R., Platt, S., Joseph, S., Weich, S., Parkinson, J., Secker, J., & Stewart-Brown, S. (2007). The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS): development and UK validation. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes.
+-Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale - Short Form (SWEMWBS)
SWEMWBS is a shorter form, derived from WEMWBS, that complies to the strict expectations set by the Rasch model. Compared to the longer form, SWEMWBS’s items are more representative of eduaimonic well-being than the hedonic part. WEMWEBS is a well-being scale focusing on positive mental health. The scale captures both hedonic and eudaimoinc parts of well-being as well as cognitive-evaluative dimensions.
Keywords: Hedonic/Eudaimonic
This scale includes 7 items.
Example items: "I've been feeling optimistic about the future", "I've been dealing with problems well", "I've been feeling close to other people".
Stewart-Brown, S., Tennant, A. Tennant, R., Platt, S., Parkinson, J. & Weich, S. (2009). Internal construct validity of the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS): A Rasch analysis using data from the Scottish Health Education Population Survey. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 7(15).
+-Flourishing Scale
The Flourishing Scale measures individuals self-perceived status on certain areas of human functioning, all considered to take large part in well-being. The scale contains items measuring meaning and purpose, relationships, engagement, competence, optimism and more – providing a single overall score of psychological well-being.
Keywords: Eudaimonic
This scale includes 8 items.
Example items: "I lead a purposeful and meaningful life", "I am competent and capable in the activities that are important to me", "people respect me".
Diener, E., Wirtzm D., Tov, W., Kim-Prieto, C., Choi, D., Oishi, S., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2010). New Well-being measures: Short scales to assess flourishing and positive and negative feelings. Social Indicators Research, 97(2), 143-156.
+-Comprehensive inventory of Thriving
Thriving indicates positive mental, physical and social functioning. CIT is a comprehensive measure of psychological well-being. It measures seven dimensions considered to be the core of positive functioning; relationships, engagement, mastery, autonomy, meaning, optimism and subjective well-being. It should be able to predict health outcomes as well as be useful for both research an clinical purposes.
Keywords: Hedonic/Eudaimonic
This scale includes 54 items.
Example items: "I feel a sense of belonging in my community", "I can succeed if I put my mind to it", "My life has a clear sense of purpose", "I feel happy most of the time".
Su, R., Tay, L., & Diener, E. The development and validation of the Comprehensive Inventory of Thriving (CIT) and the Biref Inventory of Thriving (BIT). Applied Psychology: Health and Well-being, 6(3), 251-279.
+-Brief Inventory of Thriving
BIT is a short form of CIT. It is not as comprehensive as the longer version but can nevertheless be used as an indicator of psychological well-being. It is also suitable for screening purposes of mental health.
Keywords: Hedonic/Eudaimonic
This scale includes 10 items.
Example items: "I feel a sense of belonging in my community, "I can succeed if I put my mind to it", "My life has a clear sense of purpose".
Su, R., Tay, L., & Diener, E. The development and validation of the Comprehensive Inventory of Thriving (CIT) and the Biref Inventory of Thriving (BIT). Applied Psychology: Health and Well-being, 6(3), 251-279.
+-Scales of psychological well-being (SPWB)
SPWB follows a six dimensional model of psychological well-being, suggesting there is more to it than happiness and life satisfaction. Focusing on eudaimonic well-being, the scale contains items measuring the following dimensions: autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations with others, purpose in life and self-acceptance.
Keywords: Eudaimonic
This scale includes 32 items.
Example items: "I have confidence in my opinions, even if they are contrary to the general consensus.", "Some people wander aimlessly through life, but I am not one of them.", "I like most aspects of my personality."
Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning og psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56(6), 1069-1081.
+-The 14-item Mental Health Continuum Short Form (MHC-SF)
MHC-SF is a shorter measure derived from a long form of the Mental Health Continuum. It measures well-being on a continuum from languishing to flourishing. The scale consists of items measuring hedonic and eudaimonic parts of well-being as well as items representing social well-being.
Keywords: Hedonic/Eudaimonic
This scale includes 14 items.
Example items: "During the past month, how often did you feel…"satisfied with life", "that you had warm and trusting relationships with others."
Keyes, C. L. M. (2009). Atlanta: Brief description of the mental health continuum short form (MHC-SF).
+-The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ)
The OHQ has items measuring both hedonic and eudaimonic parts of well-being, taken together the scale provides a global measure of well-being.
Keywords: Hedonic/Eudaimonic
This scale includes 29 items.
Example items: "I am not particularly optimistic about the future", "I am well satisfied about everything in my life", "I feel fully mentally alert", "I do not have a particular sense of meaning and purpose in my life".
Hills, P. & Argyle, M. (2001). The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire: a compact scale for the measurement of psychological well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 33, 1073-1082.
+-The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire short form (OHQ-S)
A short form of the OHQ, more representative of hedonic well-being than the eudaimonic part. The OHQ has items measuring both hedonic and eudaimonic parts of well-being, taken together the scale provides a global measure of well-being.
Keywords: Hedonic/Eudaimonic
This scale includes 8 items.
Example items: "I am well satisfied about everything in my life, "I feel fully mentally alert", "I do not have particularly happy memories of the past".
Hills, P. & Argyle, M. (2001). The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire: a compact scale for the measurement of psychological well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 33, 1073-1082.
+-QL- WHO-Five Well-being Index (WHO-5)
WHO-5 is a short measure of subjective psychological well-being. It can been used as a screening tool for depression as well as an outcome measure for clinical purposes.
Keywords: Hedonic/Eudaimonic
This scale includes 5 items.
Example items: "I have felt cheerful and in good spirits", "My daily life has been filled with things that interest me".
Regional Office for Europe WHO. Use of Well-Being Measures in Primary Healthcare - The DepCare Project. Health for All, Target 12, 1998.
+-GHQ-12
According to a two factor structure the GHQ-12 measures positive mental health and symptoms of mental disorder. The positive mental health factor has items representing hedonic and eudaimonc well-being.
Keywords: Eudaimonic
This scale includes 12 items.
Example items: "Have you recently...been able to concentrate on what you’re doing?", "felt you couldn’t overcome your difficulties?", "been feeling unhappy or depressed?", "been feeling reasonably happy, all things considered?"
Goldberg, D. P., & Blackwell, B. (1970). Psychiatric illness in general practice: A detailed study using a new method of case identification. British Medical Journal, 1, 439-443.; Golderberg, D., & Williams, P. (1988). A user's guide to the General Health Questionnaire. Windsor, UK: NFER-Nelson.
+-Work Well-Being Questionnaire - Black Dog Institute
The Work Well-Being Questionnaire contains items representing positive aspects of well-being that have been adapted to application in the workplace. The scale measures four dimensions: work satisfaction, organisational respect for the Employee, Emplyer care and intrusion of work into private life.
Keywords: Hedonic/Eudaimonic, Work
This scale includes 31 items.
Example items: "Is your work fulfilling", "Do you believe in the principles by which your employer operates", "Do you feel stressed in organizing your work time to meet demands", "Do you feel you have some level of independence at work".
Parker, G. B. & Hyett, M. P. (2011). Measurement of well-being in the workplace: The development of the Work Well-being Questionnaire. The journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 199(6), 394-397.
+-Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE)
SPANE is an affect scale that can be used to assess feelings. It measures the amount of a broad range of positive and negative feelings over the past four weeks.
Keywords: Hedonic, Positive affect; Negative Affect
This scale includes 12 items.
Example items: "Report how much you experienced each of the following feeling.."positive", "happy", "unplesant", "angry".
Diener, E., Wirtzm D., Tov, W., Kim-Prieto, C., Choi, D., Oishi, S., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2010). Social Indicators Research, 97(2), 143-156.
+-Bradburn Scale of Psychological Well-being (Affect Balance Scale)
Measures positive and negative affect over the past few weeks.
Keywords: Hedonic, Positive affect; Negative Affect
This scale includes 10 items.
Example items: "During the past few weeks (did you feel)...Pleased about having accomplished something?", "-On top of the world", "Bored?", "Upset because someone criticized you?"
Bradburn N.M. The Structure of Psychological Well-Being. Aldine: Chicago.
+-Emotional Well-being Scale (EWBS)
EWBS focuses on subjective evaluations of participant’s life in terms of affect, taking intentionality into account.
Keywords: Hedonic, Positive affect; Negative Affect
This scale includes 14 items.
Example items: "Life gives me pleasure", "I appreciate the life I lead", "I feel I’m wasting my life", " I worry about the life I lead".
Şimşek, Ö. F. (2011). An intentional model of emotional well-being: The development and initial validation of a measure of subjective well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 12, 421-442.
+-PANAS (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule)
PANAS is a mood scale measuring the two dimensions of positive and negative affect.
Keywords: Hedonic, Positive affect; Negative Affect
This scale includes 20 items.
Example items: Indicate to what extent you feel this way in general/right now/past weeks/past days/past year. Interested, Excited, Nervous, Afraid
Watson, D., Clark, L.A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative Affect: The PANAS Scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063-1070.
+-Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS)
SHS measures the global construct of subjective happiness, wether a person is happy or unhappy. This is not necessarily equavalent with ones evaluation of their life, e.g. a person may appraise themselves to be an unhappy person inspite of having a somewhat happy life or have experienced some positive emotions over the past months.
Keywords: Hedonic, Positive affect; Negative Affect
This scale includes 4 items.
Example items: Respondents indicate on a scale from 1 (not a very happy person) to 7 (a very happy person) what is most appropriate for them "In general, I consider myself...". Respondents indicate on a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7 (a great deal) what is most appropriate for them "Some people are generally not very happy. Although they are not depressed, they never seem as happy as they might be. To what extent does this characterization describe you?"
Lyubomirsky, O. & Lepper, H.S. (1997). A Measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and construct validation. Social Indicators Research, 46, 137–155.
+-Depression-Happiness Scale (DHS)
DHS contains items measuring affective, cognitive and bodily experience. The scale can be used to assess overall subjective well-being as presented on a continuum (depression to happiness).
Keywords: Hedonic, Positive affect; Negative Affect
This scale includes 25 items.
Example items: "I felt that I had failed as a person", "I felt that I had been successful", "I felt cheerless", "I felt that life was enjoyable".
McGreal, R., & Joseph, S. (1993). The Depression–Happiness scale. Psychological Reports, 73, 1279–1282.
+-Short Depression Happiness Scale (SDHS)
SDHS is a shorter form of the DHS, it is useful when a short measure of the depression-happiness continuum is needed. DHS contains items measuring affective, cognitive and bodily experience. The scale can be used to assess overall subjective well-being as presented on a continuum (depression to happiness).
Keywords: Hedonic, Positive affect; Negative Affect
This scale includes 6 items.
Example items: "I felt dissatisfied with my life", "I felt pleased with the way i am", "I felt that life was enjoyable".
Joseph, S., Linley, A.P., Harwood, J., Lewis, C.A., & McCollam, P. (2004). Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 77, 463–478.
+-Job-related Affective Well-Being Scale (JAWS) - 30 items
JAWS is a well-being measure focusing on affect related to ones job. The scale can be used to identify those that could benefit from interventions for stress on the job. JAWS takes into account both the amount of pleasure and arousal.
Keywords: Hedonic, Positive affect; Negative Affect, Work
This scale includes 30 items.
Example items: "My job made me feel depressed", "My job made me feel energetic", "My job made me feel furious", "My job made me feel satisfied".
Van Katwyk, P. T., Fox, S., Spector, P. E., & Kelloway, E. K. (2000). Using the Job-related Affective Well-being Scale (JAWS) to investigate affective responses to work stressors. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. 5(2), 219-230.
+-Job-related Affective Well-Being Scale (JAWS) - 20 items
A shorter version of the JAWS scale. JAWS is a well-being measure focusing on affect related to ones job. The scale can be used to identify those that could benefit from interventions for stress on the job. JAWS takes into account both the amount of pleasure and arousal.
Keywords: Hedonic, Positive affect; Negative Affect, Work
This scale includes 20 items.
Example items: "My job made me feel depressed", "My job made me feel energetic", "My job made me feel furious", "My job made me feel satisfied".
Van Katwyk, P. T., Fox, S., Spector, P. E., & Kelloway, E. K. (2000). Using the Job-related Affective Well-being Scale (JAWS) to investigate affective responses to work stressors. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. 5(2), 219-230.
+-Satisfaction with life scale (SWLS)
Focuses on life satisfaction. SWLS leaves it to the respondent to weigh different dimensions and feeling states in the way he or she chooses.
Keywords: Hedonic, Life satisfaction
This scale includes 5 items.
Example items: "I am completely satisfied with my life", "If I could live my life over, I would change nothing".
Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71-75.
+-Personal Wellbeing Index – Adult (PWI-A)
Measures satisfaction of certain areas of life representing subjective well-being.
Keywords: Hedonic, Life satisfaction
This scale includes 7/9 items.
Example items: "How satisfied are you…"with what you are achieving in life", "with feeling part of your community?"
Cummins, R.A.; International Wellbeing Group (2013). Personal Wellbeing Index: 5th Edition. Melbourne: Australian Centre on Quality of Life, Deakin University.
+-Brief overall job satisfaction measure II
Indicates how people feel about their job. How satisfied they are and how much they enjoy it.
Keywords: Hedonic, Life satisfaction, Work
This scale includes 5 items.
Example items: "Most days I am enthusiastic about my work", " Each day of work seems like it will never end".
Brayfield, A. H. & Rothe, H. F. (1951). An index of job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 35(5), 307-3011. MEASURE HERE: http://www.timothy-judge.com/JS2.html
+-Brief overall job satisfaction measure I
Measures how satisfied one is with his job.
Keywords: Hedonic, Life satisfaction, Work
This scale includes 3 items.
Example items: "All things considered, are you satisfied with your present job?", "please write down your best estimates on the percent time your feel satisfied, dissatisfied, and neutral about your present job on average. The three figures should add-up to equal 100%".
Judge, T. A., Boudreau, J. W., & Bretz, R. D. (1994). Job and life attitudes of male executives. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(5), 767-782. MEASURE HERE: http://www.timothy-judge.com/JS1.html
+-The Questionnaire for Eudaimonic Well-Being (QEWB)
QEWB focuses on the functioning part of well-being, including aspects like: “self-discovery, perceived development of one’s best potentials, a sense of purpose and meaning in life, intense involvement in activities, investment of significant effort, and enjoyment of activities as personally expressive.
Keywords: Eudaimonic
This scale includes 21 items.
Example items: "I believe I have discovered who I really am.", "I feel best when I’m doing something worth investing a great deal of effort in.", "As yet, I’ve not figured out what to do with my life."
Waterman, A. S., Schwartz, S. J., Zamboanga, B. L., Ravert, R. D., Williams, M. K., Bede Agocha, V., Kim, S. Y., & Donnellan, M. B. (2010). The Questionnaire for Eudaimonic Well-Being: Psychometric properties, demographic comparisons, and evidence of validity. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 5(1), 41–61.
+-Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC)
Sence of coherence has been defined as consisting of three components: Comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness. SOC measures sence of coherence as a global construct and does not provide subscales for those three components. The scale can indicate how successful one is at coping with stressful situations.
Keywords: Eudaimonic, Resilience
This scale includes 29 items.
Example items: "When you talk to people do you have the feeling that they don’t understand you?", "Does it happen that you have feelings inside which you would rather not feel?", "Has it happened that people whom you counted on have disappointed you?"
Antonovsky, A. (1993). The structure and properties of the Sense of Coherence Scale. Social Science & Medicine, 36(6), 725-733.
+-Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)
MAAS is a scale designed to measure mindfulness, a certain state of conciousness related to well-being. It measures how aware one is of himself and his or her environment and actions. The whole scale is negatively phrased.
Keywords: Eudaimonic, Mindfulness
This scale includes 15 items.
Example items: "I could be experiencing some emotion and not be conscious of it until some time later", "i rush through activities without being really attentive to them", "I find myself preoccupied with the future or the past".
Brown, K. W. & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 85(4), 822-848.
+-The Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised (CAMS-R)
CAMS-R is a scale that covers the breadth of mindfulness with items representing four factors: Attention, present-focus, awareness, and acceptance. The scale gives a single score of mindfulness.
Keywords: Eudaimonic, Mindfulness
This scale includes 10 items.
Example items: "It is easy for me to concentrate on what i am doing", "I am able to accept the thoughts and feelings I have", "I can usually describe how i feel at the moment in considerable detail".
Feldman, G., Hayes, A., Kumar, S., Greeson, J., & Laurenceau, J. (2007). Mindfulness and emotion regulation: The development and initial validation of the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised (CAMS-R). Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 29(3), 177-190.
+-Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ)
FFMQ measures mindfulness as a multifaceted construct. The scale measures five facets: Describing, acting with awareness, non-judging to inner experience, non-reactivity to inner experience, and observing. It provides a total score of mindfulness as well as a single score for each subscale.
Keywords: Eudaimonic, Mindfulness
This scale includes 39 items.
Example items: "I pay attention to sounds, such as clocks ticking, birds chirping, or cars passing", "When i have distressing thoughts or images, I feel calm soon after", "I rush through activities without being really attentive to them", "My natural tendency is to put my experiences into words".
Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyes, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-repost assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13(1), 27-45.
+-The Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory - Short Form (FMI)
FMI is a measure of mindfulness. The short form does not include the ‘buddhist’ context and can therefor be used for people with or without meditation experience.
Keywords: Eudaimonic, Mindfulness
This scale includes 14 items.
Example items: "When i notice an absence of mind, I gently return to the experience of here and now", "I watch my feelings without getting lost in them", "I am impatient with myself and others".
Walach, H., Buchheld, N., Buttenmüller, V., Kleinknecht, N., & Schmidt, S. (2006). Measuring mindfulness—the Freiburg mindfulness inventory (FMI). Personality and Individual Differences, 40(8), 1543-1555.
+-The Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS)
KIMS measures four skills of mindfulness: Observing, describing, acting with awareness, and accepting without judgement. The scale is designed to assess to what degree people tend to be mindful in daily life. It can be used for people with or without meditation experience.
Keywords: Eudaimonic, Mindfulness
This scale includes 39 items.
Example items: "I tell myself that i shouldn't be feeling the way I'm feeling", "When i'm doing chores, such as cleaning or laundry, I tend to daydream or think of other things", "I intentionally stay aware of my feelings", "My natural tendency is to put my experiences into words".
Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., & Allen, K. B. (2004). Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: The Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills. Psychological Assessment, 11(3), 191-206.
+-Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSE)
RSE is a self-report measure of self-esteem.
Keywords: Eudaimonic, Self-esteem
This scale includes 10 items.
Example items: "On the whole, I am satisfied with myself.", "I feel I do not have much to be proud of.", "I feel that I’m a person of worth, at least on an equal plane with others."
Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image, Princeton, NJ; Princeton University Press.
+-Core Self-Evaluations Scale (CSES)
The CSES was developed to measure core self-evaluations in a brief measure, including: self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, Neuroticism and locus of control. The scale shows a single factor structure.
Keywords: Eudaimonic, Self-esteem, Self efficacy
This scale includes 12 items.
Example items: "I am capable of coping with most of my problems", "I am filled with doubts about my competence", "I complete tasks successfully".
Judge, T.A., Erez, A., Bono, J.E., & Thoresen, C.J. (2003). The Core Self-Evaluations Scale: Development of a measure. Personnel Psychology 56, 303-331.
+-New General Self-Efficacy Scale (NGSE)
NGSE measures self-efficacy – the belief that one has resources to meet lifes’ demands, as a single construct.
Keywords: Eudaimonic, Self-efficacy
This scale includes 8 items.
Example items: "I will be able to achieve most of the goals that I have set for myself.", "Compared to other people, I can do most tasks very well."
Chen, G., Gully, S.M., & Eden, D. (2001). Validation of a New General Self-Efficacy Scale. Organizational Research Methods, 4(1), 62-83.
+-Self-Efficacy Scale
The Self-Efficacy Scale was developed to measure generalized self-efficacy expectancies. The scale includes 23 items and has two subscales: a general self-efficacy subscale and a social self-efficacy subscale.
Keywords: Eudaimonic, Self-efficacy
This scale includes 23 items.
Example items: "If I can't do a job the first time, I keep trying until I can.", "When unexpected problems occur, I don't handle them well."
Sherer, M., Maddux, J.E., Mercandante, B., Prentice-Dunn, S., Jacobs, B., & Rogers, R.W. (1982). The Self-Efficacy Scale: Construction and validation. Psychological Reports, 51, 663-671.
+-Life Orientation Test - Revised (LOT-R)
The LOT-R is a measure of optimism. The scale measures a persons generalized expectancies for positive versus negative outcomes.
Keywords: Eudaimonic, Optimism
This scale includes 10 items.
Example items: "In uncertain times, I usually expect the best", "I don't get upset too easily", "If something can go wrong for me, it will".
Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self mastery, and self esteem): A reevaluation of the Life Orientation Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 67(6), 1063-1078.
+-Brief Resilience Scale (BRS)
The Brief Resilience Scale was developed to measure resilience, indicating ones ability to bounce back or recover from stress.
Keywords: Eudaimonic, Resilience
This scale includes 6 items.
Example items: "It does not take me long to recover from a stressful event.", "It is hard for me to snap back when something bad happens."
Smith, B. W., Dalen, J., Wiggins, K., Tooley, E., Christopher, P., & Bernard, J. (2008). The brief resilience scale: assessing the ability to bounce back. International journal of behavioral medicine, 15(3), 194-200.
+-The Ego Resilience scale (ER89)
This scale is a brief self-report measurement for measuring ego-resilience. It contains subjective self-ratings for different areas (recovery, dealing with new situations, etc.).
Keywords: Eudaimonic, Resilience
This scale includes 14 items.
Example items: "I enjoy dealing with new and unusual situations.", "I usually think carefully about something before acting."
Block, J. & Kremen, A. M. (1996). IQ and Ego-resiliency: Conceptual and empirical connections and separateness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(2), 349-361.
+-The 14 Item Resilience Scale (RS-14)
A two dimensional measure of resilience. This scale should be able to indicate individuals resources and the positive contribution one brings to difficult life experiences. The first factor contains items measuring personal competence as represented by self-reliance, independence, determination, invincibility, mastery, resourcefulness, and perseverance. The second factor measures acceptance of self and life as represented by adaptability, balance, flexibility, and a balanced perspective of life.
Keywords: Eudaimonic, Resilience
This scale includes 14 items.
Example items: "I feel proud that I have accomplished things in life.", "I feel that I can handle many things at a time.", "My belief in myself gets me through hard times."
Wagnild, G. M. & Young H. M. (1993). Development and psychometric evaluation of the Resilience Scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 1(2), 165-178.
+-Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC)
The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale is a brief measurement for measuring resilience. The scale shows good psychometric properties.
Keywords: Eudaimonic, Resilience
This scale includes 25 items.
Example items: "Best effort no matter what.", Can handle unpleasant feelings.", "You work to attain your goals."
Connor, K.M., Davidson, J.R.T. (2003). Development of a new resilience scale: The Connor-Davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC). Depression and anxiety 18:76–82. Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com)
+-Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale - short form (CD-RISC 10)
This Scale is a shorter form from the Connor- Davidson Resilience scale.
Keywords: Eudaimonic, Resilience
This scale includes 10 items.
Example items: "Can deal with whatever comes.", "Coping with stress can strengthen me.", "Not easily discouraged by failure."
Campbell-Sills, L., Stein, M.B. (2007). Psychometric Analysis and Refinement of the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC): Validation of a 10-Item Measure of Resilience. Journal of Traumatic Stress, Vol. 20, No. 6, December 2007, pp. 1019–1028
+-Meaning in Life Questionnaire
A short questionnaire measuring meaning in life. The scale measures both presence of meaning, the extent to which respondents feel they live a meaningful life, and search for meaning, the degree to which one strives to find meaning and purpose in life.
Keywords: Eudaimonic, Meaning and Purpose
This scale includes 10 items.
Example items: "I am always looking to find my life's purpose", "I have a good sense of what makes my life meaningful", "My life has no clear purpose", "I understand my life's meaning".
Steger, M. F., Frazier, P., Oishi, S., & Kaler, M. (2006). The Meaning in Life Questionnaire: Assessing the presence of and search for meaning in life. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53, 80-93.
+-APSI Sense of Identity
APSI represents the extent to which an individual has a sense of identity, as represented on a continuum.
Keywords: Eudaimonic, Meaning and Purpose
This scale includes 8 items.
Example items: "I have a firm sense of who I am.", "I have a clear set of personal values or moral standards.", "I know what I want out of life."
Lounsbury, J. W, Tatum, H. E., Gibson, L. W, Park, S. H., Sundstrom, E. D., Hamrick, F. L., & Wilburn, D. (2003). The development of a Big Five adolescent personality scale. Psychoeducational Assessment, 21, 111-133.
+-UWES
UWES is a measure of work engagement as consisting of vigor; being energetic and resilient while working, dedication; being involved, enthusiastic and proud of ones work, and absorption; being concentrated and engaged in work projects. Work engagement is considered to be the opposite of burnout.
Keywords: Eudaimonic, Engagement, Work
This scale includes 17 items.
Example items: "When I am working, I forget everything else around me.", "I can continue working for very long periods at a time.", "To me, my job is challenging."
Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., Gonzalez-Roma, V. & Bakker, A. B. (2002b). The measurement of engagement and burnout: a confirmative analytic approach. Journal of happiness Studies, 3, 71–92.; Schaufeli, W. B. & Bakker, A. B. (2003). UWES – Utrecht work engagement scale: test manual. Department of Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht. Available at http://www.schaufeli.com.
+-UWES-9
A short scale derived from UWES. UWES is a measure of work engagement as consisting of vigor; being energetic and resilient while working, dedication; being involved, enthusiastic and proud of ones work, and absorption; being concentrated and engaged in work projects. Work engagement is considered to be the opposite of burnout.
Keywords: Eudaimonic, Engagement, Work
This scale includes 9 items.
Example items: "I am enthusiastic about my job.", "I am immersed in my work.", "At my work, I feel bursting with energy."
Schaufeli, W.B., Bakker, A.B. & Salanova, M. (2006). The Measurement of Work Engagement With a Short Questionnaire. A Cross-National Study. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66(4), 701-716.
+-The Life Engagement Test (LET)
LET is a short scale measuring purpose in life. It indicates to what degree a person considers his or her activities as valuable and important.
Keywords: Eudaimonic, Meaning and Purpose
This scale includes 6 items.
Example items: "To me, the things i do are all worthwhile", "I have lots of reasons for living", "Most of what I do seems trivial and unimportant to me".
Scheier, M. F., Wrosch, C., Baum, A., Cohen, S., Martire, L. M., Matthews, K. A., Schultz, R., & Zdaniuk, B. (2006). The Life Engagement Test: Assessing purpose in life. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 29, 291-298.
+-The Measurement of Work Autonomy
This scale indicates the degree of freedome one has when it comes to ones work. It measures three different types of autonomy when it comes to the job. Work method autonomy indicates how much of a choice an employee has when it comes to work methods/procedures, work scheduling autonomy indicates to what extent workers feel in control of the scheduling/timing of their work, and finally work criteria autonomy indicates workers ability to modify or choose the criteria used for performance evaluation.
Keywords: Eudaimonic, Autonomy, Work
This scale includes 9 items.
Example items: "I am free to choose the method(s) to use in carrying out my work.", "I have control over the scheduling of my work.", "I am able to modify what my job objectives are (what I am supposed to accomplish)."
Breaugh, J.A. (1985). The Measurement of Work Autonomy. Human Relations, 38(6), 551-570.
+-Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ)
Indicates employees commitment to their work organisation: How much effort an one is willing to put in for the companies success, how loyal he feels, how glad he is about being a part of the company and more related items representing ones commitment to the organisation.
Keywords: Eudaimonic, Commitment, Work
This scale includes 15 items.
Example items: "I am willing to put in a great deal of effirt beyond that normally expected in order to help this organization be successful", "I feel very little loyalty to this organization", "I am proud to tell others that I am part of this organization".
Mowday, R.T., Steers, R.M. & Porter, L.W. (1979). The Measurement of Organizational Commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 14, 224-247.
+-Grit-Scale
Measures how persistent and passionate one is when it comes to achieving long-term goals.
Keywords: Eudaimonic, Commitment
This scale includes 12 items.
Example items: "I become interested in new pursuits every few months.", "I have achieved a goal that took years of work."
Duckworth, A. L., Peterson, C., Matthews, M.D. & Kelly, D.R. (2007). Grit: Perseverance and Passion for Long-Term Goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(6), 1087–1101.
+-Short Grit-Scale
Derived from the Grit-Scale that measures how persistent and passionate one is when it comes to achieving long-term goals. It is not only shorter but has also shown to be psychometrically stronger than the long version. Use of the short scale is therefor recommended over and above the longer one.
Keywords: Eudaimonic, Commitment
This scale includes 8 items.
Example items: "New ideas and projects sometimes distract me from previous ones.", "I finish whatever I begin."
Duckworth, A. L. & Quinn, P. D. (2009). Development and validation of the Short Grit Scale (Grit-S). Journal of Personality Assessment, 91(2), 166-174.
+-ESS - Flourishing indicators
Ten items that together can serve as indicators of flourishing. The items represent both the feeling(hedonic) and functioning(euadimonic) part of well-being.
Keywords: Hedonic/Eudaimonic
Huppert, F. A., Marks, N., Clark, A., Siegrist, J., Stutzer, A., VittersØ, J., et al. (2009). Measuring well- being across Europe: Description of the ESS well-being module and preliminary findings. Social Indicators Research, 91, 301–315.